|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||3,106,892|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||2,257,650|
|دوره 1، شماره 1، فروردین 1401، صفحه 37-53 اصل مقاله (945.26 K)|
|نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.30479/wp.2022.17108.1010|
|کاملیا طالعی بافقی*|
|دانش آموخته دکتری فلسفه هنر، واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران|
|تاریخ دریافت: 22 فروردین 1401، تاریخ بازنگری: 16 خرداد 1401، تاریخ پذیرش: 21 خرداد 1401|
|ایلیاد و اودیسه هومر را میتوان مرحله گذر از دوره شفاهی دین یونان باستان به دوره کتبی و ثبت و نظاممندشدن اسطورههای یونانی که معرِّف دین چندخدایی است به پایمردی ذهن و خیال اسطورهپرداز چکامهسرایی دانست که میکوشید به پرسشهای انسانِ سکنی گزیده در زیستبوم یونان باستان در زمینه دین و نسبت میرندگان با جاودانان و نیز اخلاق اجتماعی و قومی پاسخهایی درخور بیابد. روشن است که هومر دغدغه استدلال منطقی را ندارد؛ زیرا شاعری است که فرزند زمانهی اسطورهساز و خداتراشی خویش است و در مقام شاعری با ذهنی کاملاً خو گرفته با اسطوره و خیال، محصور در عالمی مابین برزخ (مثال) و دنیا، بیشتر درصدد ارائه توصیف و گزارشی از خدایان و قهرمانان و وقایع و اسباب و معدّات آنها متناسب با درک و فهم و مرتبه هستیِ مردمان اسطورهگرای عصر خود است. وجود این عناصر، حاکی از آن است که اگرچه امروزه آثار متعددی برای تحقیق در دین یونان باستان در دست است، اما بیتردید ایلیاد و اودیسه آثار ممتازی در این حوزه هستند که فرادهش دینی و اخلاقی و خدایان المپی مردمان اسطورهپرداز یونان باستان را در قالب چکامههای حماسی ثبت و جاودان کردهاند.|
|دین؛ یونان باستان؛ هومر؛ ایلیاد؛ اودیسه|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|The Standing of Homeric Epics in Recounting the Religious Tradition of Ancient Greece|
|Camellia Talei Bafghei|
|PhD in Philosophy of Art, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.|
|Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey can be recognized as the transitional stage between the oral period of the Ancient Greek religions and its written period when the Greek myths –that indicate a polytheistic religion– were recorded and organized with the assistance of the mind and the imagination of a myth-making poet who attempted to find befitting answers to the questions of the man inhabiting the ecosystem of Ancient Greece regarding religion, relation between mortals and immortals, and also social and ethnic ethics. It is clear that Homer was not concerned with logical reasoning; because he is a poet that is the offspring of his myth-making and god-fabricating era and as a poet with a mind completely accustomed to myth and imagination, and stuck in a realm between limbo and earth, he is rather seeking to provide a description and a report about gods, heroes, events, and their means and equipment proportional to the understanding, knowledge and the existential order of his myth-oriented contemporary people. The existence of these elements indicates that although there are currently several works at hand to help inquire into the Ancient Greek religions, but undoubtedly the Iliad and Odyssey are excellent works in this regard because they have recorded and immortalized the religious and ethical traditions and the Olympic gods of the myth-making people of Ancient Greece in the form of epic poems.|
|Religion, Ancient Greece, Homer, Iliad, Odyssey|
"Religion" is a word that first appeared in Cicero's handwriting (as it has been cited from Romans), and according to some scholars such as Moran, Church took this word and gave a new form to its Cicero's meaning (Moran, 2010:146). In the sixth book of The City of God, Augustin refers to three types of theology proposed by the Roman scholar of the first century BC: the first is the theology of "myths" or "fantasy" proposed by poets. The second religion is "nature," proposed by philosophers. Finally, the third one is the "civil" religion spread in the city's cultural system by the city and its religious authorities (Augustine, 1950: 314-315). Although the Greeks had no word that referred to religion meaning as of today means, understanding religious thoughts that exist in Greek epic literature, such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, can significantly help understand the culture and civilization of that era. According to some scholars such as Havelock (1963), Nagy (1996), and Sandywell (2003), the reason for the popularity and the extensive use of Homer's view is that Homer's narratives were used as an inspiration source for artic and cultural expressing such as; drama, visual arts, sculpture, music and poetry, rhetoric, political strategy, praxis, architectural, cosmology and ancient philosophy, Socratic dialectics, Platonic metaphysics and so forth (Sandywell, 2003: 49; Havelock, 1963: 319; Nagy, 1996: 42-43). By considering the theories of scholars regarding the cultural use of Homer's poems, we can assert that in the dark era of Greece, around 700 BC, Homer describes a society that was severely degraded and impoverished. But in his poems, he is seeking the old era of Greece that had strong religious beliefs, military power, unity, and prosperity.
This study intends to seek the place of religion in Homer’s epic poems by a descriptive-analytical approach.
Discussion & Results
In order to analyze the religion and the religious beliefs in Iliad and Odyssey, first, we investigate the religion among the early people of ancient Greek. We survey how the ancient Greek religion is merged with myth. Eventually, we will discuss the religious icons in Homer’s two poems.
The religion of the ancient Greeks was merged with the beliefs of Greek early people, which consisted of worshiping the ancestors, including the dead or heroes. A fireplace was used as their manifestation, and the family and establishment of basic rules were among its results. However, this religion is divided into other branches, and the most important ones are worshiping Zeus, Hera, and other Olympian Gods. This worship roots in the worshiping of natural elements. Worshiping the elements of nature began when Greeks found self-awareness of the place and the role of nature in their lives. This religion grew with the development of Greek societies and went beyond the families and families’ fireplace and took the form of a shrine with its own special rules and rituals, and special sacrifices were considered for them. These shrines were extended and turned into a temple. Then religion merged with myth. This stage talks about the Gods that are important for creating the world and governing it more than anything. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey can be considered the transition stage from oral myth to the written one. The era in which the myths that are the introductions of polytheism are organized. This happened by the poet's efforts and great fantasizing mind that hardly tried to find the appropriate answer to the question regarding religion, mortal and immortal social and ethics for the ancient Greeks. It is clear that Homer is not concerned the logical reasoning; since he is a poet that belongs to the era of myth-making and God-creating, a poet whose mind is wholly accustomed to myth and fantasy and enclosed in a world between purgatory and the world intends to describe the Gods and Heroes and tell the tales regarding their events and adventures in a way that be comprehensible for the people. According to some scholars, in Homer's poems in the discussion of "epic," we are not dealing with merely independent art but a productive cultural system, an oral encyclopedia containing moral criteria and social behavior that determined the social, political, and intellectual identity of classical Greek and Hellenistic civilization. Another statement is that although in the nineteenth century some ambiguities about Greek civilization were dispelled still the new evidence and proofs be give information to us as good as Homer does since the context of his poems is derived from the era he lived in. Elements such as the existence of Delphi temple in Homer's poems is been archaeologically proven. His attention to religious rituals such as sacrificing to the Gods to reduce the wrath of Gods or the answer to the prayers, rejection of human sacrifice by Gods due to desecration of temples, involvement of Gods in human affairs, the manifestation of gods in humans and animals; The existence of moral super-concepts such as Arche and the establishing moral rule that were essential to society, such as the rule of hospitality, suggest that Homer, as a prominent poet in ancient Greece, was not only well acquainted with the religion of ancient Greece but also as the greatest religious scholars and thinkers assert. However, there are more valuable sources today than the Iliad and the Odyssey for the study of Greek religion, it cannot be neglected that Homer's poems have been the best source of Greek religion for centuries in the West. A source that all have accepted, moreover, the gods that Homer created are a perfect example of moderation and proportion of thought.
Religion, Ancient Greece, Homer, Iliad, Odyssey.
Havelock, E. A. (1963). Preface to Plato, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Moran, G. (2010). International Handbook of Inter-religious Education, Religious Education in United States Schools.
Nagy, G. (1996). Greek Mythology and Poetics, Cornell University Press.
Sandywell, B. (2003). The Beginnings of European Theorizing: Reflexivity in the Archaic Age, USA: Routledge.
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