|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||3,096,661|
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|پژوهشهای میان رشتهای زبان و ادبیات فارسی|
|مقاله 12، دوره 1، شماره 2 - شماره پیاپی 3، مهر 1401، صفحه 281-312 اصل مقاله (1.8 M)|
|نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.30479/irpli.2023.17977.1074|
|رعنا زارع پور* 1؛ فریده مختاری فریور2؛ محمد علی موسی زاده3|
|1دانش آمو خته کارشناسی ارشد موسیقی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران|
|2دانشآموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تفت، ایران.|
|3استادیار، گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران|
|تاریخ دریافت: 26 مهر 1401، تاریخ بازنگری: 01 مهر 1402، تاریخ پذیرش: 03 اسفند 1401|
|موضوع این مقاله بررسی خاستگاه وزن گوشه های آواز دشتی در ردیف موسیقی کلاسیک ایرانی است. پهلویات ازگونه های شعری-موسیقایی مهم دوران ساسانی است که وزن کهن و کمتر تکامل یافته ی دوبیتی های امروز می باشد. بعد از ورود اسلام به ایران، تحت تاثیر نظام عروض عرب به تدریج دچار دگرگونی هایی در وزن گردید و به بحر هزج مسدس محذوف یا مقصور تبدیل شد و به دلیل مشخصه های ساختاریِ ویژه، همچنان در موسیقی اقوام به عنوان وزنی محبوب و رایج به حیات خود ادامه داد و از آن طریق به ردیف موسیقی ایرانی راه یافت. برخی از پژوهشگران موسیقی معتقدند که آواز دشتی، مجموعه ای از آهنگ های نواحی ایران است و حضور سنگین وزن دوبیتی درگوشه های دشتی، این گمان را تقویت می کند. روش تحقیق در این مقاله توصیفی–تحلیلی می باشد و بررسی های آماری که جهت تعیین فراوانیِ وزن گوشه های آواز دشتی در چهار روایت ردیف موسیقی ایران (سازی و آوازی) و همچنین وزن اشعار منتخب در اجرای آوازهای دشتی آلبوم های محمد رضا شجریان صورت گرفت، ارتباط معنا داری را بین آواز دشتی با وزن دوبیتی و وزن کمتر تکامل یافته آن که تداعی گر وزن پهلویات قدیم می باشد، نشان می دهد. این مقاله سیر تطور وزن پهلویات و ارتباط این اوزان را با وزن گوشه های آواز دشتی مورد بررسی قرار می دهد.|
|پهلویات؛ دو بیتی؛ آواز دشتی؛ بحر هزج مسدس مقصور و محذوف|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|Dobeyti_ha_i old Pahlavi language and the origins of metric patterns in the Gusheh_ha_i of Avaz Dashti|
|rana zarepour1؛ farideh mokhtari farivar2؛ MohammadAli mousazadeh3|
|1Master of Music, University of Art, Tehran, Iran|
|2Master of Persian Language & Literature University of Payame nour|
|3Asistant professor, Persian Language & Literature Faculty, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran|
|The subject of this essay is to review the origin of the metric of the Gusheh-ha_i of Avaz Dashti in the Iranian classical music. Pahlaviyat is one of the important types of poetry-music of the Sasanian era, which is the old and less evolved metric of today's dobeyti. Since the arrival of Islam in Iran, under the influence of the Arab prosody system, it gradually underwent changes in the metric and became Bahr Hazaj Mosadas Mahzof or Maqsur, and due to its special structural characteristics, it continues to be a popular and common metric in the Iranian ethnic's music continued and that way he got into the Radif of Iranian music. Some music researchers believe that ،Avaz Dashti is a collection of songs of Iran and heavy metric presence of Dobeity on the Gusheh_ha_i of Dashti, this will reinforce doubt and believe. The research method in this article is descriptive-analytical and the statistical investigations were carried out to determine the frequency of the metric of Avaz Dashti in four Radifs of Iranian music (instrumental and vocal) as well as the metric of selected poems in the performance of the Avaz Dashti of Mohammad Reza Shajarian's albums shows a significant connection between the Avaz Dashti with dobeyti metric and its less evolved ritmic, which is reminiscent of the metric of old Pahlaviyat.This article examines the changes in the Pahlaviyat metric and its relationship with the metric of the Gusheh_ha_i of Avaz Dashti.|
Keywords: Pahlaviyat, Dobeyti, Avaz Dashti, metric, Bahr Hazaj, Radif of Iranian music
|Pahlaviyat, Couplet, . Pahlaviyat, Dobeyti, Avaz Dashti, metric, Bahr Hazaj, Radif of Iranian music|
Pahlaviyat was a common poetic-musical genre during the Sasanian era that narrated the conditions and times of the Iranian people with two verses in a special metric and with themes taken from the events of the society. After the arrival of Islam, their metric of the gradually changed. It came in the form of Bahr Hazaj Mesadas Mahzouf/Maqsoor and remained a Dobeyti or Taraneh in a significant portion of Iranian ethnic's music. Some of these songs were able to gradually enter the Dastgahi music system. Avaz Dashti was formed in large part by a number of Avaz_ha_i Dobeyti that were included in the Dastgah Shur. Mirza Abdollah Farahani separated some songs from among the Dastgah_ha he had learned, gave them relative independence, and added modal's Gusheh_ha_i that were in harmony with it while compiling Radif of iranian music (Khzarai, 2017: 92). Khaleghi portrays Dashti melody as follows: “ Sad, painful, and sad, but tender and delicate at the same time” (1341: 167). It seems that due to some characteristics, Dobeyti metric is more appropriate than other metrics with the latent state in the Dashti mode; As Forsatod doleye Shirazi says in Buhurol al_han: "It can be said that a certain poem's metric is more suitable for a certain song " (1400: 20). All the poems that he suggests for Avaz Dashti are based on Dobeyti metric. Moreover, Abdol Qader Maraqi says: "If someone wants to make people cry, he should make a set of songs whose effect on souls is sadness because each set of songs has a kind of effect on the emotions" (1388: 420). in this article, while examining the development and evolution of Pahlaviyat metric, the relationship between these metrics and the metric of the Gusheh_ha_i of Avaz Dashti has been determned and it has been tried to answer the main question of this article, what is the origin and logic of the abundant presence of Dobeyti metric in the Avaz Dashti. Methodology
The exploration methodology in this article is descriptive-analytical , and In order to accurately determine the frequency of couplet metric in the radif and songs of Iranian classical music, part of the information obtained in this article is based on statistical studies in the corners of seven Dastgah and five Avaz from numerous narrations of the Radif and also in the selected poems of the songs of Mohammad Reza Shajarian. the abundance of Dobeyti metric in four Radifs, including two vocal Radifs by "Abdullah Davami" and "Mahmoud Karimi" and two Radifs by "Saba" and "Mirza Abdullah," as well as in selected poems of Mohammad Reza Shajarian's songs In 39 albums published between 1359 and 1382, was examined. Babak Khazarai determined the metric of all the Gusheh_ha_i in the aforementioned Radifs in two separate Mahoor Music Quarterly articles, and "Hasan Ali Mohammadi" determined the Bahr of Shajarian's songs in the sixth chapter of the book "Hezar Golkhaneh Avaz." is (Refer to sources).
Discussion and Results
Experts have argued a great deal about Pahlavis and their transformation into Dobeyti, as well as their outcomes; Bahar's opinion is: “The metric of Fahlaviat was not derived from the Arab Bahr and existed in this country before the arrival of the Arabs to Iran, but the Persian poems were syllabic and not prosaic and fragmentary, and the stanzas of Dobeyti_ha_i were not like today, which we call Bahr Hazaj Masads" (1310: 40). "Mar" is a professor who believes: “The metric of Fahlaviyat is less evolved contrasted with the metric of Hazaj Masads Mahzoof, and consequently, it is a lot more established than it” (Ismailpour, 1377:30). The two metric of hazj and moshakel appear together in every old prosodic Pahlavis four stanzas, and the use of Maf’ulaton elements gradually decreases; The metric of Moshakel is most prominent in the third and fourth stanzas, while the metric of hazaj is present in all four (Tabibzadeh, 1392: 76), and the Pahlaviyat structure only contains the hazaj metric in the evolved form. The Dobeyti_ha_i do not contain any unusual similes, irony, illusions, other crafts, spiritual issues, or combinations derived from the Arabic language and The Dobeyti_ha_i's wording and meaning are completely straightforward (Panahi Semnani, 2013:61). Additionally, it is also stated in Qaboosnameh: “Among the metrics, there is no metric more sensitive than the metric of a taraneh” (onsorol Ma'ali, 1342: 141).
Various local songs in metric Dobeyti had the option to enter the instrumental music framework and some of them assumed a significant part in the development of Dashti tunes during the forming of five Avaz.
The consequences of the measurable examinations in this article show that 96.75% of the metric of the Gusheh_ha_i in Avaz Dashti the concentrated on vocal and instrumental Radif is in Dobeyti metric. Additionally, in the studied albums, 69.23 percent of the selected poems in the Avaz Dashti performed by Shajarian are in Dobeyti metric. in the vocal Radif, due to the close relationship between music and poetry, the metric of the poems affects the metric of the music, and the metric of the Dobeyti is clearly recognizable in the Gusheh_ha_i of the Dashti. However, in the instrumental Radif where the Gusheh_ha_i are not necessarily associated with the poetry and the songs have more independence, the number and order of the elements of "Mafa’ilon" and "mufa'il" are different in the beginning and middle parts of the Gusheh_ha_i Avaz Dashti, but in the final parts of the Gusheh You can clearly recognize the metric of the Dobeity. (cf. Mirza Abdallah's radif with transliteration Talayi, 1383). The results of the statistical analysis carried out in this article show that the metric of the Dobeiyti is the result of gradual changes in the metric of the Pahlaviyat and it seems that there are special features in the structure of the metric of the Avaz_ha_i Dobeyti, which is the reason for the continuity and success of this type among Iranians, not only in the poems of the ethnic songs. which is also included in Persian classical poetry and today it is in a place between popular and official culture and literature and in the most frequent Radif of this metric it is related to the Avaz Dashti. Also, if you carefully look at the names of the Gusheh_ha_I Avaz Dashti, you can find out their origin, which is derived from the Avaz_ha_i Dobeyti of the folk music of Iran.
Keywords: Pahlaviyat, Dobeyti, Avaz Dashti, metric, Bahr Hazaj, Radif of Iranian music
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